July 10 is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years). There are 174 days remaining until the end of the year.
- 1419 BC: Emperor Go-Hanazono (d. 1471)
- 1452: King James III of Scotland (d. 1488)
- 1614: Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, English royalist statesman (d. 1686)
- 1711: Princess Amelia of Great Britain (d. 1783)
- 1736: Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (d. 1807)
- 1867: Prince Maximilian of Baden, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
- 1965: Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark
- 138 BC: Hadrian, Roman emperor (b. 76)
- 649: Li Shimin, Emperor of China (b. 599)
- 1099: El Cid, of Castile (b. 1044)
- 1103: King Eric I of Denmark
- 1290: King Ladislaus IV of Hungary (b. 1262)
- 1460: Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English military leader (b. 1402)
- 1480: King René I of Naples (b. 1410)
- 1559: King Henry II of France (b. 1519)
- 1584: William I of Orange (b. 1533)
- 1590: Archduke Charles II of Austria (b. 1540)
- 1621: Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy, soldier in Habsburg service (b. 1571)
- 48 BC: Battle of Dyrrhachium: Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.
- 138: Emperor Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae, he is buried at Rome in the Tomb of Hadrian beside his late wife, Vibia Sabina.
- 988: Norse King Glun Iarainn recognizes Máel Sechnaill II, High King of Ireland, and agrees to pay taxes and accept Brehon Law; the event is considered to be the founding of the city of Dublin.
- 1460: Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick defeats the king's Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner in the Battle of Northampton.
- 1553: Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.
- 1584: William I of Orange is assassinated in his home in Delft, Holland by Balthasar Gérard.
- 1778: American Revolution: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
- 1911: The Royal Australian Navy was established by HM King George V of Australia.
- 1971: Hassan II of Morocco survives an attempted coup d'état, which lasts until June 11.
- 1980: Alexandra Palace burns down for a second time.