|Reign||12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000 (35 years)|
|Spouse||Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium|
| Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria|
Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein
|House|| Paternal: House of Bourbon-Parma|
Maternal: House of Nassau-Weilburg
|Father||Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma|
|Mother||Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg|
|Born|| 5 January 1921 |
Berg Castle, Luxembourg
HRH Grand Duke Jean
Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg (given names: Jean Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano; born 5 January 1921) ruled Luxembourg from 1964 to 2000. He is the father of the current ruler, Grand Duke Henri, and the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma. Among his godparents was Pope Benedict XV, who gave him his second name.
Jean was born on 5 January 1921, at Berg Castle, in central Luxembourg, the son of the reigning Grand Duchess, Charlotte.
He attended primary school in Luxembourg, where he continued the initial stage of secondary education. He completed secondary school at Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in the United Kingdom.
Second World WarEdit
On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded Luxembourg, beginning a four-year occupation. Having been warned of an imminent invasion, the Grand Ducal Family escaped the previous night. At first, they sought refuge in Paris, before fleeing France only weeks later. Jean went to Canada, where he studied Law and Political Science at Université Laval, Quebec City.
He joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards in November 1942. After receiving officer training at Aldershot, Jean was commissioned as a Lieutenant in March 1943, before being promoted to captain in 1944. He landed in Normandy on 11 June 1944, and took part in the Battle for Caen and the liberation of Brussels. On 10 September 1944, he took part in the liberation of Luxembourg before moving on to Arnhem and the invasion of Germany. After the war, from 1984 until his abdication, he served as Colonel of the Regiment of the Irish Guards, often riding in uniform behind Queen Elizabeth II during the Sovereign's Birthday Parade.
They had three sons and two daughters:
- Princess Marie-Astrid (born 17 February 1954)
- Grand Duke Henri (born 16 April 1955)
- Prince Jean (born 15 May 1957)
- Princess Margaretha (born 15 May 1957)
- Prince Guillaume (born 1 May 1963)
He became Grand Duke when his mother, the Grand Duchess Charlotte, abdicated on 12 November 1964.
Grand Duke Jean abdicated on 7 October 2000, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Henri.
Titles, styles and honorsEdit
Titles and stylesEdit
- 5 January 1921 – 12 November 1964: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma
- 12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau
- 7 October 2000 – present: His Royal Highness Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau
His full title is "by the Grace of God, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein." Many of the titles are held without regard to the strict rules of salic inheritance.
Change of dynastic titlesEdit
Jean renounced the titles of the House of Bourbon-Parma for himself and his family in 1986 when his eldest son, then-Hereditary Grand Duke Henri married Maria-Theresa Mestre. The reason for this was that the Duke of Parma, Carlos Hugo, ruled the marriage unequal in 1981, as well as the marriage of Prince Jean to Hélène Suzanna Vestur in 1987, for which he had renounced his rights to Luxembourg in 1986. It is not known if the marriage of Prince Guillaume is seen by Carlos Hugo as equal.
The Arrêté Grand-Ducal of 21 Septembre 1995 established that the title of Prince/Princesse de Luxembourg is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne. It also stated that the descendants in male lineage of the sovereign should be styled as Prince/Princesse de Nassau with qualification of Altesse Royale and that the descendants of unapproved marriages should be styled as Comte/Comtesse de Nassau.
- Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau (Grand Master 1964 – 2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau (Grand Master 1964 – 2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown (Grand Master 1964 – 2000)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Grand Master 1964 – 2000)
- Luxembourg War Cross (with bar)
Foreign honours and awardsEdit
- Belgium: Croix de guerre (with bar)
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant
- France: Croix de guerre 1939–1945
- Holy See: Knight Commander of the Order of the Golden Spur
- House of Habsburg: 1,293rd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- House of Savoy: Supreme Knight of the Order of the Annunziata (1978)
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (1978)
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy (1978)
- Netherlands: Commemorative War Cross
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
- Poland: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
- Portugal: 379th Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Infante Dom Henrique
- Spain: 1,184th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- United Kingdom: 951st Knight of the Order of the Garter
- United Kingdom: 1939-1945 Star
- United Kingdom: France and Germany Star
- United Kingdom: Defence Medal
- United Kingdom: War Medal 1939–1945
- USA: Silver Star