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Prince Adolphus
Adolphus Frederick Duke of Cambridge.JPG
Duke of Cambridge
Successor Prince George
Spouse Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel
Issue
George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg
Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Full name
Adolphus Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father George III of the United Kingdom
Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Born 24 February 1774(1774-02-24)
Buckingham Palace, Westminster
Died 8 July 1850(1850-07-08) (aged 76)
Cambridge House, Piccadilly
Burial Kew, Surrey

The Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850), was the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death. He also served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV. His granddaughter, Mary of Teck, was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and paternal grandmother of the current monarch, Elizabeth II.

Early lifeEdit

Prince Adolphus was born at Buckingham Palace, the tenth child and seventh son of George III and Queen Charlotte, as well as being the youngest son to survive infancy.

On 24 March 1774, the young prince was christened in the Great Council Chamber at St. James's Palace by Frederick Cornwallis, The Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were Prince John Adolphus of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (his great-uncle, for whom the Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel (his first cousin once-removed, for whom the Earl of Jersey, Extra Lord of the Bedchamber, stood proxy) and The Princess of Orange (the wife of his first cousin once-removed, for whom the Dowager Countess of Effingham, former Lady of the Bedchamber to The Queen, stood proxy).

EducationEdit

He was tutored at home before being sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany in summer 1786, along with his brothers Prince Ernest (created Duke of Cumberland in 1799) and Prince Augustus (created Duke of Sussex in 1801).

Military careerEdit

He was made honorary Colonel-in-Chief of the Hanovarian Guard Foot Regiment 1789–1803, but his military training began in 1791, when he and Prince Ernest went to Hanover to study under the supervision of the Hanoverian commander Field Marshal von Freytag. He remained on Freytag's staff during the Flanders Campaign in 1793. His first taste of action was at Famars on 23 May. He was wounded and captured at the Battle of Hondschoote 6 September, but was quickly rescued. As a Hanovarian General-Major he commanded a Hessian brigade under his paternal uncle General Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn in Autumn 1794, then commanded the Hanovarian Guards during the retreat through Holland. Remaining in Germany he commanding a brigade of the Corps of Observation, 22 October 1796 – 12 January 1798. He was made a British army colonel in 1794, and lieutenant general 24 August 1798. In 1800 – stationed in the Electorate of Hanover – he attended the foundation of a village in the course of the cultivation and colonisation of the moorlands in the north of Bremen and named the municipality after himself Adolphsdorf (since 1974 a component locality of Grasberg).

In the course of the War of the Second Coalition against France (1799–1802) he travelled to Berlin in 1801, in order to prevent the impending Prussian occupation of the Electorate. France demanded it, as it was stipulated in the Treaty of Basel (1795), obliging Prussia to ensure the Holy Roman Empire's neutrality in all the latter's territories north the demarcation line of the river Main, including Hanover. Regular Hanoveran troops therefore had been commandeered to join the multilateral so-called Demarcation Army. His efforts were in vain. In 1803 he was senior army commander, and replaced Wallmoden as commander of the on the Weser 1 June. With the advance of French forces on one side and 24,000 Prussian soldiers on the other the situation was hopeless. Cambridge refused to become involved in discussions of capitulation, handed over his command to Hammerstein (Ompteda claims he was forced to resign) and withdrew to England. A plan to recruit additional soldiers in Hanover to be commanded by the Prince had also failed.

In 1803 he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the new founded King's German Legion and in 1813 he became field marshal. George III appointed Prince Adolphus a Knight of the Garter on 6 June 1786 and created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron Culloden on 17 November 1801.

The Duke served as colonel-in-chief of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards (Coldstream Guards after 1855) from September 1805 and as colonel-in-chief of the 60th (The Duke of York's Own Rifle Corps) Regiment of Foot from January 1824. After the collapse of the Napoleon's empire he became Military Governor of Hanover 4 November 1813 – 24 October 1816. Then Governor General of Hanover 24 October 1816 – 20 June 1837 (viceroy from 22 February 1831). He was made Field Marshal 26 November 1813. In his time as Hanoverian Viceroy the Duke became name-giving for the Hanoveran Regiment of the Cambridge - Dragoons (German: Cambridge-Dragoner), stationed in Celle, where the Bundeswehr used their baracks, the Cambridge-Dragoner Kaserne, until 1995. The march of the Hannoversches Cambridge-Dragoner-Regiment is part of the Bundeswehr's traditional music repertoire.

ViceroyEdit

From 1816 to 1837, the Duke of Cambridge served as viceroy of the Kingdom of Hanover on behalf of his elder brothers, George IV and later William IV. When his niece, Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne on 20 June 1837, the 123-year union of the crowns of Great Britain (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801) and Hanover ended. The Duke of Cumberland became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover and the Duke of Cambridge returned to Britain.

Personal lifeEdit

MarriageEdit

The Duke of Cambridge was married first at Kassel, Hesse on 7 May and then at Buckingham Palace on 1 June 1818 to his second cousin Augusta (25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889), the third daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel.

ChildrenEdit

DeathEdit

The Duke of Cambridge died on 8 July 1850 at Cambridge House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried at Kew. His remains were later removed to St. George's Chapel, Windsor. His only son, Prince George, succeeded to his peerages.

Titles, styles and honorsEdit

Titles and stylesEdit

  • 24 February 1774 – 17 November 1801: His Royal Highness The Prince Adolphus
  • 17 November 1801 – 8 July 1850: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge

His full style at death was Field Marshal His Royal Highness The Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, Baron Culloden, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order.

HonorsEdit

British Honors

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